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Pedigree Dogs Exposed: Three Years On - Wikipedia

The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation ANSTO said three workers were "attended to by radiation protection personnel" after contamination was detected on the outside of a container holding 42 millilitres of Molybdenum Mo on Friday morning. The spokesperson said manufacturing of Mo ceased on Friday morning and an investigation was underway.

He said the workers were receiving ongoing support from ANSTO, including medical observation from an occupational physician. The spokesperson said supplies of Mo were being provided by alternative facilities at ANSTO while the investigation was underway. The incident comes less than two weeks after ANSTO received a licence to begin supplying Mo — the parent isotope of technetiumm, used in 85 per cent of all Australian nuclear medicine. It also follows a series of contaminations scares at the Lucas Heights facility in recent years — including one just two months ago in which three workers were exposed a chemical spill.

In August a worker was left with blisters on his hands and a higher risk of developing cancer after he dropped a vial of radioactive material and was contaminated through two pairs of gloves. The event was deemed the most serious in the world in , according to the International Nuclear Event Scale — the global grading system for nuclear incidents.

An independent review of the facility in October found it failed modern nuclear safety standards and should be replaced. In the same week ANSTO confirmed five workers had received a dose of radiation at the facility, but that the amount of radiation was "less than a chest x-ray".

Topics: disasters-and-accidents , nuclear-accident , workplace , lucas-heights More stories from New South Wales.

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If you have inside knowledge of a topic in the news, contact the ABC. ABC teams share the story behind the story and insights into the making of digital, TV and radio content. Read about our editorial guiding principles and the standards ABC journalists and content makers follow. Progressively brighter tones are unrecordable beyond a certain intensity, causing textures to turn solid white " clipped highlights " , or individual color channels to saturate:.

Incomplete use of a camera's dynamic range reduces the number of recorded tones, and this problem is compounded by the fact that cameras capture disproportionately fewer dark tones compared to how we see with our eyes:. Note: the number of tones has been reduced for visibility, but the same trend applies.

The actual number and distribution of tones depends on the bit depth and gamma. See the tutorial on gamma correction and digital tones for more on this topic. The key is knowing how to control one's exposure to take advantage of these unique characteristics. Ideally, one would capture using a standard exposure that records the brightest tones possible, but without clipping. However, this isn't always practical, since i one often doesn't know the precise distribution of tones before pressing the shutter button, ii taking a second photo isn't always an option and iii fitting a standard exposure within the camera's dynamic range might not even be possible in the first place.

The decision is therefore one of strategy. Which of the above characteristics does one aim for, even if potentially at the expense of others?


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In the next three sections we discuss the relative merits of three such exposure strategies. A correct exposure is typically obtained whenever a middle gray tone within your scene gets recorded as a middle gray tone on the image histogram.

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However, there isn't always a "correct" exposure for every scene, since this also depends on your artistic intent particularly for night and low-light photos. Sometimes a little highlight clipping is OK and even looks natural. Specular highlights such as reflections on metal or water , regions around the sun such as in sunsets and other direct light sources such as street lamps all appear perfectly fine when clipped. This is often the necessary cost of ensuring that everything else is sufficiently bright. In other situations, clipping might not be ideal, but it will likely be unavoidable — otherwise excessive noise or detail loss may occur in the darkest regions.

In these cases, the difficult part is deciding on how much clipping is acceptable. This can happen very easily when trying to push the histogram as far right as possible. In the example below, even the slightest under-exposure was undesirable since this scene contained both bright clouds and extremely dark regions:.

Inbreeding and the use of popular studs are not limited to boxers, and both practices lead to the reduction in genetic diversity which poses a serious threat to the long-term survival of many breeds. It developed an online tool called Mate Select which allows people to look up health test results and inbreeding level of individual dogs compared to the breed average. The database can also calculate for breeders the coefficient of inbreeding COI that two selected dogs will produce. Such matings are now banned by the KC but many dogs registered will have a much higher COI than this despite no close matings.

This is because of decades of "keeping it in the family" with common ancestors appearing repeatedly in the distant pedigree. Geneticist Steve Jones says damage can be reduced by banning close inbreeding; mating with cousins is almost as bad and if such matings continue, problems build up.

Some breeders go to considerable lengths to make the most of genetic diversity in their breeds, but dogs will suffer while the KC still allows this degree of inbreeding. Jones says the measures taken so far are tentative and reluctant. The KC says it prefers education over regulation but the programme says the KC must do more. It has no proposal for a maximum level of inbreeding unlike the Swedish Kennel Club.

In that country, no boxer born in the past two years has a COI of more than 6. Breed clubs have also set limits to reduce the impact of popular sires. Jones states that the boxer case is an example of how rapidly you can cause damage. Breeders need to stand back and look at the bigger problem. Why would anyone breed animals that suffer except for vanity? Another part of the problem is how show rings change the appearances of breeds, rarely for the better.

The latter need assistance to mate and give birth because of exaggerated traits. Evans states that some people had been desensitized to the extent that they see breeding of deformed and diseased animals as normal. There were "howls of protest" from some breeders.

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It was not the first time that the KC had revised standards in response to criticism. Archive footage from [1] shows the KC stating that they were removing clauses that require exaggerations. The programme argues that it neither worked then nor now, judging by the animals still winning in show rings.

Crispin comments on a top Bulldog of , that no judges should place a bulldog with such morphology and shape while the owner protests that there is nothing wrong with the dog. Bateson is disappointed that the same thing still goes on after everything that has been done.

It is 25 years since similar criticism of bulldogs were made in the programme. Veterinary checks of Crufts show winners in 15 high-profile breeds starting in will help but more is needed. More radical checks of breed standards are needed to reverse exaggerations, says British Veterinary Association's Harvey Locke. He states that people should be going for bulldogs with long snouts. Moderate types of many breeds already exist, and the programme shows pictures of them and suggests embracing the Leavitt Bulldog and dumping the current show bulldogs, choosing the working Albany Basset over show Basset hounds , original Chinese Shar Pei over the wrinkly Western type, and working Neapolitan Mastiffs over show types.

Evans states that it is not possible to make already genetically poor dogs better through beauty pageants, comparing it to "polishing a turd". He says that a dog show that actually focused on health and welfare could make a massive difference, but that a new start might be needed. The original PDE had shown a pug that qualified for Crufts competition was born to a Crufts champion with numerous health problems typical in the breed; kneecaps sitting out of their joints , partially collapsed larynx , elongated soft palate , narrowing of nasal cavity, inward rolling of lower eyelids and curvature of the spine.

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Three Years On also developed considerable airtime to this variety of dog. Breeding for the pug's curled tail is thought to be the reason for the deformed spine, with breed standard calling for the tail to be "curled as tightly as possible" and "double curl highly desirable". The vertebrae have to be of unusual shapes for the tail to form a corkscrew when fit together. This likely increases the instances of abnormalities elsewhere in the spine, according to Cambridge professor Nick Jeffery.

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There is currently a breed club screening program for the spine but it is making little progress. The current standard has been softened to state that the tail should be "tightly curled over the hip", but it still notes a double curl to be highly desirable. Muzzle standard has been changed from "short" to "relatively short". The programme states that pugs in show rings are still so flat-faced that the RSPCA started a campaign to highlight issues in brachycephalic broad and short-faced breeds. There is increasingly compelling evidence that when taken to extremes, the condition may be catastrophic for the dogs.

The struggling for air is one of the most frightening feelings man or animal can have, states Gerhard Oechtering, a professor of veterinary medicine at the University of Leipzig and one of the world's leading experts in the treatment of brachycephalic airway disease.

Some pugs have to constantly battle to breathe, and in extreme cases may need surgery for relief. The dog, Cissy, likes to keep her head up when she lies down, even when sleeping. Numerous videos on YouTube shows pugs falling asleep sitting or standing up. One clip from YouTube [2] [ full citation needed ] which was presented as a funny video, was shown in the programme.

Some pugs behave in this way because their airways close when they drop their heads. Cissy also has a tongue too big for her mouth, shallow eye sockets that increases the risk of eyes popping out and overcrowded teeth. His research shows that the part of the nose critical in controlling body temperature is significantly smaller in the pug than in the normocephalic i. This makes pugs at risk for heat stroke.

There is no fix for the nose, but Oechtering conducts a surgery to remove excess tissue blocking the airways. While the pug is anesthetized, he parts the "huge mass of redundant skin" above its nose to reveal a fold filled with gunk. Owners can find it difficult to keep the fold clean as the dogs may resist attempts to do so. We view through an endoscope inserted through the nostrils an airway which is "more or less severely obstructed".