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Fabrication technology and nanotechnology offer an opportunity to integrate the energy harvester with ultra-low power WSNs to monitor accurately the condition of machines online. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Sensors Basel v. Sensors Basel. Published online Nov Ball 1. Find articles by Xiaoli Tang.

Find articles by Robert Cattley. Find articles by Fengshou Gu. Andrew D. Find articles by Andrew D. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 3; Accepted Nov This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Condition monitoring can reduce machine breakdown losses, increase productivity and operation safety, and therefore deliver significant benefits to many industries.

Keywords: energy harvesting systems, machine condition monitoring, wireless sensor networks, maintenance-free. Introduction Condition monitoring is a process of judging the health status of a mechanical system, which uses various types of data such as temperature, vibration, strain, rotating speed, displacement, pressure, voltage, current, acoustics and operator experience to achieve change-point detection and thus provide a timely decision for the maintenance works [ 1 ]. Open in a separate window.

Advances in energy harvesting methods

Figure 1. Wireless sensor nodes powered with energy harvesting techniques. Power Consumption of a WSN based System Wireless communication technology has developed rapidly with domestic and industrial demands from the end of the last century, developing many different WSNs. Table 1 Comparison of traditional wireless transmission technologies. BLE 5. ZigBee [ 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 ] k 10 to m 4 72 84 Low power consumption, low cost, low complexity and self-organization. Z-wave [ 33 , 36 ] 40 k Indoor: 30 m or 40 m Outdoor: m 3 70 65 RF-based, low cost, low power consumption, low radiation, anti-interference and high reliability.


ANT [ 33 , 34 ] 60 k 30 m at 0 dBm 3 75 Utra-low power consumption, high flexibility and proprietary. Table 2 Typical wireless communication modules and parameters.

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Please refer to the datasheets for various modules. Table 3 Typical microprocessor modules and parameters. Table 4 Typical sensor modules and parameters.

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Potential Energy Harvesting Sources in Machines To provide sufficient power for self-powered WSNs, the potential energy harvesting resources in or around mechanical systems can be analyzed as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Energy Harvesting Techniques and Applications As discussed in Section 2 , a more generalised real-time machine condition monitoring WSN system needs to deal with large amounts of data.

Light Energy Harvesting Light energy, for example the energy from sunlight or artificial light, is generally renewable and ubiquitous energy source, which can be harvested and accumulated to power sensor nodes through the photovoltaic technique [ 53 ]. Figure 5. Figure 6. Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting Electromagnetic energy is usually captured from the ambient RF sources which generate high electromagnetic fields, like TV broadcast stations, radar stations, Wi-Fi routers, Bluetooth, global system for mobile communications GSM and other communication networks [ 69 , 70 , 71 ].

Figure 7. Figure 8. Relationship between received power and distance for RF energy harvesting. Thermal Energy Harvesting In general, heat energy coming from temperature variation in the environment can be scavenged into electricity via some key thermal conversion techniques based on the Seebeck effect [ 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 ]. Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Thermoelectric energy harvesting [ 85 ] is a conventional technique for converting wasted thermal energy into the electrical power by means of thermoelectric generators exploiting the Seebeck effect.

Figure 9. Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting Compared with thermoelectric energy harvesting, an indispensable prerequisite of pyroelectric energy harvesting is temperature fluctuation over time [ 10 ].

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Figure Mechanical Energy Harvesting Wasted mechanical energy widely exists in the environment, such as human motion, bridge vibrating, vehicle driving, ocean surging, wind blowing, and mechanical rotating. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Piezoelectricity, also known as the piezoelectric effect, is a phenomenon converting mechanical energy into electrical energy due to the inherent polarization characteristics of certain crystals [ ].

Schematic of a piezoelectric wind turbine: an internal structure of the device. Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting Electromagnetic induction refers to a part of the conductor in a closed-circuit which cuts magnetic flux in a non-parallel direction to generate an induced current in the circuit. Table 5 Comparison of some electromagnetic generators found in the literature. Triboelectric Energy Harvesting Two objects manufactured with different materials can generate electron flow in a specific direction when they periodically contact or separate from each other by external forces.

Electrostatic Energy Harvesting The working principle of the electrostatic EH is based on the variation of the capacitance, which converts mechanical energy into electrical form. Hybrid Energy Harvesting EH technologies are classified based on different energy sources. Table 6 Comparison of various energy harvesting technologies.

Bulky electronics, like solar panels; Affected by weather, regions, locations inside or outside buildings ; With high cost and pollution. Ultra-low output power and often varies in time due to the decrease of the circuit performance. Require high-frequency temperature fluctuations and high efficiency of energy extraction cycles.

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Table 7 Comparison of various energy harvesting technologies. Energy harvesting devices are easy to fatigue and crack; Work at a low and narrow frequency band; Limitation on the types of optional materials and complexity of fabrication techniques. With inevitable coil losses; Difficulty to fabricate microscale devices and integrate with MEMS; May be interfered by the electromagnetic waves. With inevitable wear of materials; Heat generated by the wear may cause catastrophic accidents. Most require separate voltage sources or electret materials or doublers; Quite small energy density and low output; Work at a low and narrow frequency range.

Wireless Sensor Network based Machine Condition Monitoring Failure induced by various factors like improper installation, unsuitable temperature, corrosion, abrasion, fatigue, oil debris and occurred on components such as motors, generators, engines, pumps, bearings, gears and shafts of engineering systems can unexpectedly cause machinery to collapse and lead to significant losses for industries [ 1 ]. Table 8 Condition monitoring techniques. Modelling [ ] Numerical modelling; Data modelling.

Machine learning [ ] Neural network, deep learning, expert system, fuzzy logic, support vector machine SVM , etc. Schematic diagram of the designed thermoelectric generator device. Challenges and Future Research Aimed at developing a generalised or configurable WSN based machine condition monitoring systems, this review has revisited different up-to-date energy harvesting principles and prototypes along with an examination of their advantages and disadvantages in terms of energy capacities, fabrication and efficiency.

Conclusions This paper gives an overview of a comprehensive range of promising energy harvesting technologies and systems for achieving self-powered WSNs in machine condition monitoring. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Rao B. Handbook of Condition Monitoring.

  1. Advances in Energy Harvesting Methods.
  2. Advances in Energy Harvesting Methods.
  3. ISBN 10: 1461457041.
  4. Elsevier; Oxford, UK: Nandi S. Tavner P. Review of condition monitoring of rotating electrical machines. IET Electr. Power Appl. Hou L. IEEE Trans. Akyildiz I. Wireless sensor networks: A survey. Zhou M. A review on heat and mechanical energy harvesting from human—Principles, prototypes and perspectives. Energy Rev. Panatik K. Wang H.

    Advances in Energy Harvesting Methods - Niell Elvin, Alper Erturk - Häftad () | Bokus

    Energy harvesting technologies in roadway and bridge for different applications—A comprehensive review. Ibrahim R. Procedia Comput. Sebald G.

    ISBN 13: 9781461457046

    On thermoelectric and pyroelectric energy harvesting. Smart Mater. Wei C. A comprehensive review on vibration energy harvesting: Modelling and realization. Hadas Z. Virtual prototypes of energy harvesting systems for industrial applications.